Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD) is predominantly encountered in adults and rarely documented and less well-defined clinically and epidemiologically in children. The cause remains unclear, with the main pathogenic mechanism being represented by a decrease in prostaglandin E2 production, increased production of cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eosinophilic inflammation. N-ERD symptoms in the pediatric population are similar to those in adults: chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma and respiratory symptoms upon aspirin/NSAID administration, but they can initially present with gastrointestinal or cutaneous symptoms or be more subtle, making early diagnosis difficult and requiring rigorous differential diagnosis.
Pediatric onset of N-ERD should be considered by specialists when faced with cases of asthma associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Studies involving a larger number of patients are needed to determine the frequency of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity in children with asthma and to establish the evolutionary and therapeutic characteristics of this patient category.